ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ ਦੇਵ ਵੈਟਨਰੀ ਐਂਡ ਐਨੀਮਲ ਸਾਇੰਸਜ਼ ਯੂਨੀਵਰਸਿਟੀ
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary And Animal Sciences University

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College of Veterinary Science

Animal Genetics and Breeding

Cattle Breeding

Crossbreeding of dairy cattle was initiated with Red Dane breed from Denmark and later on Holstein Friesian breed was introduced. The major objectives of the Cattle Improvement Projects are to compare the performance of different genetic groups of crossbred cattle and to evaluate the crossbred bulls through progeny testing, to supply the semen of genetically superior bulls to the farmers and other dairy development agencies. Milk Production: The average 305-day milk yield of crossbred cows has increased from 2835 kg in 1974-75 to 4880 kg in 2008-2009. This has been achieved by the development and application of the improved technologies of animal breeding, feeding, housing and disease control. Crossbred cows with peak yield upto 52.5 kg a day and milk yeild of 10493 Kg in and 12260 Kg in 305 days have been produced and the bull calves retained from such cows are evaluated through progeny testing. The fat content in the milk of crossbred cows ranged from 3.59±0.08 to 4.43 ± 0.09 protein, 2.54 ± 0.05 to 3.11 ± 0.05 per cent, lactose 4.54 ± 0.04 to 4.84 ± 0.03 and SNF 8.00±0.06 to 8.36 ± 0.06 per cent over different months. Moderate to high heritability estimates of fat and SNF percentages indicated the opportunities to increase their levels in milk through selective breeding.

Crossbred cows milk a 305 days milk yield of 10493 Kg and complete lactation. Milk yield of 12260 Kg have been producing with peak yeild of 52.5 Kg a day.

Field Progeny Testing

Sr. No. Bull No. Date of birth Dam No. Sire No. Dam’s best 305-day milk yield (kg) No. of Frozen semen doses available for sale Rate of semen per dose (Rs.)
1.  1F-1013 04.02.99 HRS705 FCB847 7696 500 16
2.  1F-1063 7. 2.2000 HRS705 HRS812 7696 960 16
3.  1F-1123 15.02.01 HRS705 HHS973 7696 2300 16
4.  FC-1272 12.08.04 FC1047 HFC1022 7242 966 12
5.  FC-1297 05.02.05 Dam 4 HFD1325 6939 2000 12
6.  FC-1152 29.10.01 HHS773 1F1013 6865 3500 12
7.  FC-1201 07.10.02 1F706 HFI792 6728 1600 12
8.  FC-1256 16.12.03 1F706 HFI95 6728 2500 12
9.  FC-1346 15.11.06 FC1051 FC1201 6718 2000 12
10. FC-1154 08.11.01 HRS447 1F1013 6692 2200 12
11. 1F 996 06.11.98 HS446 HFI344 6380 540 12
12. HHS-1129 21.03.01 HS392 HFI95 6279 1000 12
13. FC-1250 03.11.03 4F790 FCB847 6215 724 12
14. FC-1342 20.08.06 Dam 32 HF104 6176 1500 12
15. FC-1202 15.10.02 4F950 HFI344 6117 3700 12
16. FC-1278 22.08.04 4F950 IF1130 6117 4000 12
17. FC-1176 15.2.02 7F952 HFF22518 6009 1004 12
18. FC-1209 17.01.03 7F952 HFF21808 6009 2300 12
19. FC-1190 09.07.02 3F816 3F940 5751 1000 12
20. 1F-787 28.07.95 2F313 HRS110 5729 580 12
21. FC-1291 31.01.05 2F1012 HFC1022 5636 992 12
22. FC-1192 15.07.02 1F913 HFI344 5629 3500 12
23. 3F-449 10.11.89 2F16 HRS239 5613 450 12
24. 4F-1130 29.03.01 HS494 HFF22202 5585 3500 12
25. FC-1132 17.04.01 HHS711 HHS973 5169 253 12
26. FC-1362 05.06.07 FC1171 FC1201 5162 3000 12
27. FC-1267 16.03.04 Dam 1 HFD1325 5160 1151 12
28. FC-1218 26.11.02 Dam 8 HFD1325 5150 1500 12
29. FC-1207 02.11.02 Dam 2 HF4691 5000 3513 12
        Total Doses 52733    

Field Progeny Testing Project:

It is a network programme of ICAR with collaborative units of PAU, Ludhiana; Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy and Bhartiya Agro Industries Foundation, Pune. The area of operation is served by 21 A.I. centers in Ludhiana district, which are operated by State A.H. Deptt. and some by trained inseminators. The average first lactation 305-day milk yield of crossbred progenies in the adopted villages was 1698 kg in the year 1979 which as a result of supply of high quality semen of test bulls has increased to 2904 kg in the year 2009.This has been achieved by providing technical guidance to the farmers about the breeding, feeding and management of crossbred animals. Some progressive dairy framers after getting training and superior germplasm from the project have established crossbred herds with lactation milk yield of more than 4000Kg and peak yield of more than 40 Kg a day.


The genetic improvement of buffaloes has been taken up under a Network Project of ICAR which was earlier started as All India Co-ordinated Project on Buffalo Improvement. The major thrust of this project is the improvement of Murrah breed of buffaloes by undertaking the progeny testing of buffalo bulls and the extensive use of genetically superior Murrah bulls. The project is jointly taken up at the four participating centers viz. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana; National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University Hisar and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar. Recently, progeny testing programme has been extended to the dairy units of the farmers by adopting the field unit. Milk production: The milk yield of buffalo herd has increased from 1671 kg in early seventies to the present level of 2359 kg. The fat content in the milk of buffaloes ranged from 7.39±0.11 to 7.80±0.08, protein, 3.80±0.03 to 4.82±0.08, lactose, 4.44±0.09 to 5.13±0.07 and SNF 9.48±0.06 to 9.83±0.08 per cent over different lactations. With the systematic selection and optimum management, it has been possible to produce buffaloes with peak yield as high as 24.6 kg day and lactation yield of 4430 kg. Sixty-eight buffaloes have been recorded with peak yield of more than 18 kg a day including 25 buffaloes with peak yield of more than 20 kg a day. An elite herd of buffaloes having average milk yield of around 2945 kg is mated with the proven bulls for the production of future bulls, a part of which are put to progeny testing for more accurate evaluation. The remaining bull calves from the elite buffaloes are given to the buffalo breeders for rearing and use as bulls for the genetic improvement of their buffaloes. Eighty bulls have been evaluated on the basis of performance of their daughters record. Best bulls with daughters average first lactation milk yield of 2349 kg have been identified which were 42% superior over their contemporaries.

Details of semen of progeny tested buffalo bulls

Sr. No Bull No. No.  of Daughter Dam No. Dam’s 305-day milk yield (kg) Daughter’s 305 day first lactation yield (kg) Sire Index (kg) Superiority over contemporary daughters (%) doses available for sale Rate per dose (Rs.)
1. 156 7 - 3618 1743 1716 13.1 200 100/-
2. 293 21 - 2453 2079 2290 15.9 500 100/-
3. 458 9 AC525 2733 1810 1862 42.4 200 100/-
4. 558 5 AC826 2892 2039 1975 11.3 500 100/-
5. 610 4 AC646 3591 2349 2136 32.7 100 100/-
6. 888 10 - 3120 2198 2282 31.8 500 100/-
7. M82 10 AC936 4103 2220 2221 28.5 500 100/-
8. M584 8 P404 2916 1872 1878 22.3 200 100/-
9. M1354 6 P762 3088 2072 1975 18.7 500 100/-
10. M1437 9 P797 3127 1919 1904 8.1 1000 100/-
11. M1451 10 P1024 3401 1951 1945 10.4 1000 100/-
12. M1506 12 P916 3018 2065 2089 18.8 1000 100/-
13. M1796 6 P1386 3170 2215 2092 15.81 1000 100/-
              Total doses 7200  

Details of surplus semen of pedigreed buffalo bulls

Sr. No. Set No. Bull No. Date of Birth of Bull Dam No. Sire No. Dam’s best lactation yield (kg) No. of frozen semen doses available for sale Rate of semen per dose (Rs.)
1. 2 M1290 06.03.92 P448 M883 2629 302 12/-
2. 2 M1292 10.03.92 P662 M883 2649 649 12/-
3. 3 M1315 04.08.92 P834 M883 2808 312 12/-
4. 4 M1434 07.03.94 P1161 M882 2786 944 12/-
5. 4 M1446 10.06.94 P762 988 3088 971 12/-
6. 0 M1550 09.10.95 P837 MU3206 2739 655 12/-
7. 5 M1555 06.11.95 P1098 MU3462 2948 214 12/-
8. 5 M1573 18.03.96 P1017 M1290 2866 1872 12/-
9. 0 M1600 27.09.96 P1024 MU2583 3401 77 12/-
10. 0 M1662 08.08.97 P1330 M1292 2957 123 12/-
11. 6 M1667 08.09.97 P1610 MU3862 2988 5234 12/-
12. 6 M1706 14.0.98 P1619 M1354 3135 4569 12/-
13. 6 M1713 05.08.98 P1393 MU993 2815 5381 12/-
14. 6 M1717 02.09.98 P1530 MU1153 2775 4721 12/-
15. 7 M1727 31.10.98 P1467 MU1084 3098 6757 12/-
16. 7 M1746 21.09.99 P1802 MU1153 2718 6967 12/-
17. 7 M1749 19.02.99 P1425 M1354 3182 6084 12/-
18. 0 M1856 07.02.01 P1535 M82 3003 700 12/-
19. 0 M1999 17.07.03 P1669 MU3567 2714 271 12/-
20. 0 M2084 20.09.04 P1823 MU4807 2814 188 12/-
21. 0 M2093 02.12.04 P2085 M1893 2713 676 12/-
22. 0 M2116 16.08.05 P1964 MU829 2689 649 12/-
23. 0 M2118 19.08.05 P1884 MU3551 3024 1988 12/-
24. 0 M2121 31.08.05 P1993 MU3551 2839 330 12/-
25. 0 M2129 26.10.05 P2058 MU5049 2958 459 12/-
26. 0 M2165 01.09.06 P2128 M1354 2806 87 12/-
27. 0 M2169 08.09.06 P1964 M1354 2758 609 12/-
28. 0 M2182 07.11.06 P2141 M1354 2765 1121 12/-

All the bulls have been tested and are free from TB, JD, Brucellosis, BVD, IBR and Chlamydia


Price per dose of semen
Sr. No. Particulars of Bulls Liquid Frozen

Rupees per ml Rupees US $ for export
I Dam’s best lactation milk yield (305-days)

Upto 7500 kg 8 12 1.5

More than 7500 kg 10 16 2.0

Upto 4000 kg 8 12 1.5

More than 4000 kg 10 16 2.0
II Progeny Tested Bulls (Cattle & Buffalo) 40 100 5.0
  • Semen is frozen in French medium (0.5 ml) straws and delivered in customer’s containers, F.O.R., PAU, Ludhiana
  • Quality of semen can be evaluated before receiving the consignment. No complaint(s) whatsoever will be entertained later on.
  • Payment is received in cash or bank draft or through banker’s irrevocable Letter of Credit in favour of Comptroller, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana


Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) is the latest break through in Animal Reproduction Biotechnology for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in different species of livestock. As many as 50-100 calves can be produced from a single outstanding cow/buffalo through this technology by super ovulation and in vivo fertilization as against 5-10 calves in her life time normally.

Development of Technologies: Since the inception of the ETT projects, various protocols for superovulation, recovery, cryopreservation and transfer of embryos in cattle and buffaloes have been tested through intensive systematic studies. First calf in Northern India and for the first time in the history, twin buffalo calves were produced through non-surgical embryo transfer technology. For superovulation of buffaloes, Follicle Stimulate Hormone (FSH-P) 4 days schedule was more effective than FSH-P 3 days schedule, pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and PMSG + Gonadotrophin Releasing hormone (GnRH).To make the best utilization of easily available drug i.e. PMSG,Anti-PMSG was developed for the first time in PAU. Of the pure FSH brands available, super-OV is the drug of choice for quality embryo production in crossbred cows followed by Folltropin-V. Higher embryo recovery rate is achieved when superovulated cows are flushed with Rusch Catheter compared to Folley.

Field Progeny Testing Project:

Embryo transfer technology has been successfully used in the production of exotic bulls by implanting Holstein Friesian embryos imported from USA, in the local cows. The University did the pioneer work in this direction and produced the first male calf with milk yield record of 9192 kg and 9200 kg for the dam and sibs respectively. Subsequently, the State Animal Husbandry Directorate imported Holstein Friesian embryos and produced bull calves with technical assistance from the University. These bulls have started donating semen and are being used to improve the cattle population of the state. With the application of ETT, 280 cattle and 61 buffalo embryos have been produced at PAU out of which 82 cattle and 17 buffalo embryos were transferred and 28 cow and 3 buffalo calves were produced. Simultaneously, 70 cattle and 10 buffalo calves have also been produced under the field conditions in collaboration with state Milkfed and Animal Husbandry Department.

Recently, a joint project of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University and the state department of Animal Husbandry, Punjab on the Improvement of Dairy Animals through Embryo Transfer Technology at the Institutional farms and field conditions have been launched, under which elite crossbred cows of the progressive Dairy Farmers of the state are being used as donor cows to produce elite calves (herd replacement) at the doorstep of the farmers.

Poultry Breeding: / Broiler Breeding:

Two strains of broilers i.e. PB-1 (sire line) and PB-2 (dam line) have been developed through genetic selection for improved body weight to six weeks of age. Their cross commercial broiler (IBL-80) developed by GADVASU has a potential to attain an average body weight of 1550 - 1600 g at 6-weeks of age with a feed conversion ratio of 1.7 – 1.8. IBL-80 broiler has been released for commercial use at the National Level by Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India and ranks at the top among the stocks developed in the public sector.

Layer Breeding:

Day-old chicks of parent stock, hatching eggs and commercial chicks are avialable at the University hatchery.

White Leghorn:

The work on breeding of egg type chickens at PAU was started in 1970-71 through a state govt. sponsored project. Two pure strains (PL1 & PL2) were synthesized from commercial and purebred stocks respectively in 1970 -71 and 74-75. Both the strains had since then been improved through combined selection for part year egg production. Mild selection for egg size, liveability and fertility, hatchability was also followed. The average egg production upto 40 weeks of age at the beginning was about 75 eggs which had consistently improved over the years with the current average performance being 125 eggs in the pure strains. Other traits like egg weight, age at sexual maturity, egg mass and efficiency index have also improved (Table 1).

Table 1. Av. Part-year (up to 40 weeks of age) performance of pure strains of egg type stocks

Year  Egg number Age at first egg (d) Egg weight (g) Body weight  (g) Egg output (kg)
1970-71 74 182 52 1600 3.8
2005-06 114 137 56.9 1588 6.5

The cross-line stock, Satluz Layer, was released by the “Varietal Release Committee” of the state in 1987 for commercial egg production. Continuous selection in pure strains had resulted in concomitant genetic improvement of the cross line commercial stock. The annual egg production of the commercial layer is 280-290 eggs with average egg weight of 57g and egg mass output of over 16Kg. A stock of naked-neck strain in White Lehgorn genomic background is maintained for its genetic evaluation. Two lines, a high and low-line, of White Leghorn have been developed based on their response to Sheep Red Blood Cells, and have diverged through one generation of selection.

Rhode Island Red (RIR):

Two strains of Rhode Island Red (RIR) have been produced through intra-population selection. The birds of these strains lay tinted (brown) eggs and fetch higher returns especially in the rural areas of the state. It lays 240-250 eggs in a year with an average egg weight of 54 g. It is more popular with the small/marginal farmers as brown eggs get sold at a premium. Since the birds are heavier at the end of the lay, the income from the spent-up hens is also higher than White Leghorn females. The RIR birds perform well on comparatively lesser management input. Fertile/hatching eggs, day-old chicks and parent stock are available and can be procured from the university. A large number of parent stock and commercial chicks, and hatching eggs of these stocks are being supplied to outside agencies.

Quail Breeding:

The work on Japanese quails at PAU / GADVASU was started in 1990 through an ICAR funded adhoc project. On completion of the project in 1995, the work was continued through a State Govt. funded scheme. Two stocks of quails, designated as PQ 1 (Sire line) and PQ 4 (dam line) were synthesized and have been improved for 4-week body weight. Both the selected strains have completed over 40 generations of selection and have shown considerable genetic improvement. The average 4, 5 and 6 week body weight of the selected and the control line during 42nd generation is given in Table 2. The total genetic improvement measured as % superiority of the selected over the control line has been 65 to 72 % over 42 generations in the growth selected lines.

Table 2. Av. body wt (g) of selected and control lines of quails

 Age Sire line Dam Line
4–wk 200 185
5 –wk 225 220
6 –wk 245 240

A stock of White Plumage, referred to as “Punjab White Quail” has been developed and released by the “Varietal Release Committee” for commercial production. It has the potential to attain an average 5-week body weight of around 225 g.

The eggs are extensively used for the preparation of pickles. Quail meat is believed to be beneficial against certain ailments. The meat contains higher proportions of carbohydrates and Vit. B12. Quails are less susceptible to common diseases of poultry. The university supplies quail eggs, day-old chicks and 5-week old dressed/live birds.

  • Buffalo:
  • Murrah Bull No. 1354, 1875, 1994, 2045, 2133, 2185, 2234, 2269 and 2357 of various sets have been top ranked at National level by ICAR under Network Project on Buffalo Improvement- Murrah.
  • Data recording system has been developed under field condition for Cattle and Buffaloes under ICAR projects.
  • Nili Ravi breed is considered to be one of the major milch breeds of buffalo. Under the ongoing conservation plans adopted by the Ministry of Animal Husbandry and dairying, Government of India, a Network Project on Nili Ravi buffalo has been allotted to the university in 2017 by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
  • The average 305-day milk yield of the elite herd used for production of young bull calves was recorded as 2922 kg.
  • The highest production in Nili Ravi buffalo was recorded as 3871.2 kg and 4634 kg milk in 305d lactation length and complete lactation, respectively with a peak yield of 20.7 kg.
  • The dissemination of superior germplasm is one of the foremost priorities of the project and semen of outstanding Nili Ravi bull No. 507 with dam yield of 4247 kg  is available to supply the dairy farmers to improve the Nili Ravi buffaloes in the state