Epidemiological investigation of this disease indicated the disease to be frequently occurring in the state. Comparison of various diagnostic tests, i.e. fluroscent antibody test and chick embryo inoculation and gel precipitation test was made and of these fluorescent antibody test was found to be quicker and more reliable. Survival of the Mareks disease agents varies in dander and feather follicles kept in various temperatures (from 28.5 to 41.55oC) was demonstrated for 55 days after collection of dander and dry feathers.
Reproductive Disorders in Poultry :
The genital diseases in 624 birds out of 11,533 (5.4%) were recorded in 1974-75. Pathological examinations indicated Oophoritis to be the most important condition followed by neoplastic and inflammatory conditions of the genital system. Isolates from ovary and oviduct obtained were E.coli. Streptococci, Staphyiococci, Klebisiella and Pseudomonas.
Studies on New Castle Disease :
New Castle disease caused by paramyxovirus causes great economic losses in the form of outbreaks. The studies showed that supportive therapy can reduce mortality upto 32% whereas immunization has no beneficial effect. Studies on Gangrenous dermatitis: Single injection of Benzathine penicillin in broiler chicks suffering from Gangrenous dermatitis can reduce mortality considerably. Studies on lead toxicosis: Chronic lead toxicity in birds causes blush discoloration of tip of tongue and ulceration of gizzard.. These symptoms when seen in birds think of lead toxicosis
Studies on Theileriosis :
Detailed studies were undertaken on Theileria annulata infection cross-bred calves. It was inferred from the study that supportive therapy for T. annulata infections should include blood transfusions and suitable measures for correcting clotting disorders, defective liver and kidney functions in calves.
Sodium Chloride studies in Chickens :
It was concluded based on this study that excess sodium chloride levels in fed causes testicular damage. So sodium chloride should be used judiciously in poultry ration.
Studies on Avian Adenoviruses :
Inclusion body hepatitis had been reported for the first time in India. So care should be taken to take necessary preventive measures against the secondary infections Research on field outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis (an adenovirus infection of broiler chicks) lead to establish a significant correlation between aflatoxins in feed and the causation and severity of IBH. A number of FAV isolates were isolated from the liver of affected birds. Some of theses were characterized as FAV1 by serum neutralization test. Molecular characterization carried out on field isolates of these FAVs by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis revealed that FAV1, FAV2, FAV6, FAV7 and FAV8 were associated with IBH outbreaks. Studies on Hydropericardium Syndrome (HPS) in poultry revealed that HPS isolates are the pathogenic strains of FAV4, which are alone capable of causing disease experimentally as well as SPF chicks. Studies on the effect of FAV infection on the immune system of chicks revealed that FAV infections causes immunosuppression mainly by suppressing B cell immune system. The humoral immune competency was suppressed through suppression of IgM responses.
Studies on Hydropericardium :
It was observed that iodophor when given in water at a concentration of 0,5 ml/litre of water (equivalent to 7.5 ppm free iodine ) two days before HPS virus is inoculated, was effective in reducing the mortality and severity of HPS in broiler chicks Studies on mycoplasmal mastitis in sheep and goat:: Mycoplasma mycoides sub sp mycoides (Mmm) Large colony (LC)type when infused in the udder of sheep resulted in blind quarters .(i.e. severe mastitis leading to severe agalactia ). The udder of infected sheep remained enlarged in size till twenty one dayspost infection . This was quite contrary to the reports in literature regarding mycoplasmal mastitis in cattle and goats where the infected udders were found atrophied/shrunken. Other studies undertaken to study pathology of female genital tract using mycoplasma / acholeplasmas in sheep and goat . The results reveals that these organisms when induced in female genital tract induced granulo-vulvovaginitis in the afore said species. This could have serious consequences as it will result in les kids being born/may even result in sterlity in animals.
Studies on mycoplasma infection in pigs :
Studies were undertaken to characterize pig alpha2 macroglobulin, cytokine /chemokine binding proteins in pig plasma and to conduct the survey of acute phase plasma proteins in pigs in response to mycoplasma hyorhinis infection/LPS endotoxin infusion. The porcin alpha2 macroglobulin was found to be converted to fast form in inflamatory condition,bound transforming growth factor beta, a modulator of healing process. Various acute phase plasma proteins were identified and characterize using 2 D-electrophoresis and Western blotting technique.
Studies on glomerulonephritis in quails :
Use of foreign protein (BSA) was used to induce glomerulonephritis in quails to mimic the impact of busy schedule of vaccination in birds. It was found that foreign proteins when induced did result in marked glomerulonephritis as was evident by histopathology and clinical determination of blood urea nitrogen uric acid and creatininei.e. significant azotemia was observed.
Cardiovascular diseases :
Naturally occurring cardiovascular lesions in pigs, buffaloes, cattle, sheep,goats,chickens and reindeer were studied and genesis of these lesions was compared with the lesions in human cardiovascular system. The studies indicated that all these animals developed spontaneous atherosclerotic lesions which resembled the early fatty streaks in man. Studies in rabbits indicated that experimentally established atherosclerotic lesions were reversible after withdrawal of high fat diet and after attainment of normal blood cholestorol levels. This finding has a practical utility in prevention of artherosclerosis by maintaining normal blood cholesterol level. Studies in rats indicated that mustard oil feeding at 10% and 15% levels products severe faty changes in the heart, because of the presence of Erucic acid in mustard oil. The addition of fish meal and/or carmitine to the diet of mustard oil fed rats, prevents faty change in hearts.Experimental studies indicated that garlic retards the development of atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolaemia in rabbits. Mycoplasmosis. Genital mycoplasmosis in women is common in India and causes vaginitis, cervicitis, leucorrhoea, infertility, abortion, still birth and low birth weight babies, but all the reports of genital mycoplasmosis are based on the isolation of mycoplasmas from the genital tract and not on histo-pathology.
An ICAR sponsored research project is going in the department. The department is providing diagnostic test for Rabies in wild and domestic animals. The experimental studies suggested that Fluorescent antibody test is the most sensitive of all routine laboratory diagnostic test for rabies.